The recent announcment by the Food and Drug Administration of the United States has called upon the scientists to provide comments on cannabidiol and other endocannabinoids when it comes to its importance in neurodegenerative disorders.

According to Mike Membrino of Neuro Endoceuticals, USA, he asserts that endocannabinoid system and cannabinoids play an important function when it comes to the regulation of various neurological disorders.

In their recent experiment, Mike Membrino, President of Neuro-Endoceuticals and his team have respectively discovered that CBD in experimental episodes such as anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, epilepsy, anti-oxidant, an antipsychotic agent, has presented a possibility in the treatment of the neuroinflammation, brain injury, epilepsy, anxiety, schizophrenia, and other neurological illnesses.

On the other hand, Divinsky, Orrin et al. (2014) present that CBD has a neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effect. Additionally, CBD has been investigated and reported to be well tolerated in human beings. For instance, the use of CBD and THC acts as an anticonvulsant in most animal models. Besides, it has been discovered that CBD may potentiate some THC’s beneficial effects as it tends to reduce THC’s psych activity to improve the tolerability and broadens its therapeutic window (Divinsky, Orrin et al. (2014).
In the notion presented by FDA federal, the use of CBD has encouraged other organization to review the importance of CBD for instance, CBD is one of the 17 substances that are currently considered by World Health Organization (WHO). The involvement of WHO or the United Nations is to provide an outcome that may influence the use CBD in various neurological disorders. Message from the FDA commissioner has acknowledged that CBD has shown to be beneficial in the experimental models from different animals when it comes to the treatment of neurological illnesses, including those with Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy, and seizures.
Welty, Luebke, & Gidal (2014) have presented in their experimental results that CBD has low affinity for CB1 receptors, even at low concentrations. In this case, CBD can reduce G-protein activity. On the other end, CBD may act as CB1 receptors to stamps down glutamate release. In the study, it was clear that the expression of CB1 receptors during epileptogenesis and after recurrent seizures (Welty, Luebke, & Gidal, 2014). In the effects, the CB1 expression will tend to upregulate GABAergic synapse, which will reduce glutamatergic synapses in epilepsy, resulting in lowering of seizure thresholds.
Separately, CBD is highly lipophilic, which guarantees intracellular site actions, that tends to heighten calcium in a variety of cell types including the hippocampal neurons. This procedure and activity of CBD provide a basis for a neuroprotective mechanism.
In conclusion, Mike Membrino, a specialist in Adult Neurogenesis and President of Neuro-Endoceuticals stipulates that in recent studies that have claimed the positive contribution of neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of CBD, suggest that it can be used for therapeutic procedures in dealing with various neurological disorders. Michael Membrino, respectively provides that such studies and evidence will strengthen the probability that these therapies can be investigated in the clinical scenario and licensed and used in particular illnesses. Therefore, within the endocannabinoid system, CBD has shown to have inhibitory effects on stimulation of the endocannabinoids, which provides a chance of enhancing of endogenous molecules in cannabinoid receptors.
Welty, T. E., Luebke, A., & Gidal, B. E. (2014). Cannabidiol: Promise and Pitfalls. Epilepsy Currents, 14(5), 250–252. http://doi.org/10.5698/1535-7597-14.5.250
Devinsky, O., Cilio, M. R., Cross, H., Fernandez-Ruiz, J., French, J., Hill, C., … Friedman, D. (2014). Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Epilepsia, 55(6), 791–802. http://doi.org/10.1111/epi.12631
Ketamine: An Anti-Depressant?
Up to the present times, the use of Ketamine as anti-depressant has been emerging with various debate circulating around it. With recent notion that Ketamine is not scheduled under international regulation, much though have been presented on the ongoing studies that have discovered the beneficial use of Ketamine.
Studies carried out by Kurdi, Theerth, & Deva (2014) have indicated that has been clinically used since the 1970s and it is a different intravenous anesthetic that produces a broad spectrum of pharmacological effects. Despite the side effects that it might have, Ketamine produces potent analgesia in neuropathic pain states, presumably by inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor even though other properties are possibly involved, including improving the decreasing inhibition and anti-inflammatory effects at central sites (Kurdi, Theerth, & Deva (2014).
On the other hand, Aswin Suri of Neuro Endoceuticals asserts that the use of Ketamine for patients with traumatic brain injuries has been not to have positive impacts. For example, Ketamine has assisted in the maintenance of the hemodynamic stability among unstable patients. Additionally, studies have also examined the effects of Ketamine on the spread depolarization.
Other studies have reported that Ketamine is beneficial in a patient with airways disease. In this case, by the characteristic of bronchodilation ability and profound analgesia, the administration of Ketamine will assist in the protection against precipitation of asthma in asymptomatic surgical patients (Chang, Lee, et al., 2014).
Finally, when it comes chronic pain management, ketamine has been used off-label, administered in small quantities and because of its analgesic nature, it manages the chronic painful conditions. By a few short-term trials with limited clinical applications, ketamine may be useful in the treatment of chronic peripheral and central neuropathic pain, phantom and ischemic limb pain, fibromyalgia, chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS), visceral pain and migraine (Chang, Lee, et al., 2014)
Chang, L. C., Raty, S. R., Ortiz, J., Bailard, N. S., & Mathew, S. J. (2013). The Emerging Use of Ketamine for Anesthesia and Sedation in Traumatic Brain Injuries. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 19(6), 390–395. http://doi.org/10.1111/cns.12077
Kurdi, M. S., Theerth, K. A., & Deva, R. S. (2014). Ketamine: Current applications in anesthesia, pain, and critical care. Anesthesia, Essays and Researches, 8(3), 283–290. http://doi.org/10.4103/0259-1162.143110CBD vs. THC: Why Is CBD Not Psychoactive?

When it comes to the understanding of hemp extract and why it is psychoactive, we should focus into the CB1 receptors that are concentrated in the brain and the central nervous system. Aswin Suri of Neuro Endoceutical, USA, notes that the main difference between CBD and THC is based on the affinity they have towards CB1 receptors. In this case, CBD has low affinity for CB1 receptors while THC tends to bind with CB1 receptors.
According to Atakan (2012), hemp extract is a sophisticated plant, with major compounds such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. The two compounds might tend to have same chemical elements but are different in the sense that they have opposing effects. In this case, THC is described to be psychoactive while CBD is not, which makes CBD a safer compound.
Let’s talk about THC
According to and Michael Membrino, President of Neuro-Endoceuticals, THC is the main psychoactive compound in the hemp extract plant. On the other hand, recent findings indicate that THC is the only substance in hemp extract that contains pharmacological actions, comprising of the psychoactive effects. THC binds to specific proteins in the brain such as the cannabinoid receptors. Additionally, THC imitates the effects for the endocannabinoids (Niesink & van Laar, 2013). In essence of these substances, THC is not rapidly broken down at the site of the operation, and it not only functions at a particular region but also simultaneously activates all CB receptors throughout the brain (Niesink & van Laar, 2013).
On the other hand, it has also been discovered that THC has some positive effects on the brain cells. In this case, THC acts as neuroprotective antioxidants, which is opposite to recreational drugs. This argument is grounded on the experiment conducted which indicated that glutamate toxicity was reduced when THC and CBD compounds of Marijuana were used. Finally, THC is also argued to be associated with in regulation of various ailments such as tumor growth and cancer.
Now, let’s discuss CBD
This is a hemp extract compound that is not psychoactive and plays a modulating role in psychoactive effects. This makes the mechanism of CBD to be fully understood. Under normal physiological circumstances, CB-Rs are activated by endocannabinoids. The activation of CB-Rs by endocannabinoids stamps down excessive neurotransmitter production. Endocannabinoids are lipid-soluble compounds, which stops them from moving long distances within the brain (Niesink & van Laar, 2013).
Other clinical studies have recognized the physical effect of hemp extract use, for instance, pain relief, appetite promotion, and inflammation. Additionally, little research or few kinds of literature have been initiated on the efficiency and side effects of CBD in human. However, most researchers have described the impacts of CBD for therapeutic interventions in clinical trials, also, CBD has the potential in antipsychotic effects and is regarded a possible antipsychotic medicine because of its low-side effects profile. Moreover, CBD is the only compound that shows several effects to its main ingredients THC, which a partial CB1 agonist.
The Recent experiment also established that CBD has antipsychotic nature both in animals and humans. Indeed, it was discovered that relative to placebo, CBD vastly reduces the subjective anxiety and its effects were associated with its activity in limbic and paralimbic regions as presented in a single photon emission computed tomography.
In the end, Aswin suggests that, as time goes by, additional information will still tend to rise on the importance of the hemp extract plant in relations to its principal components. Research and literature reviews confirms that both THC and CBD have an improving quality effect on the neurological diseases.
Atakan, Z. (2012). Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on individuals. Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology, 2(6), 241–254. http://doi.org/10.1177/2045125312457586
Niesink, R. J. M., & van Laar, M. W. (2013). Does Cannabidiol Protect Against Adverse Psychological Effects of THC? Frontiers in Psychiatry, 4, 130. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00130