Nov 13, 2017


PSP belongs to a group of neurological diseases referred to as “tauopathies.” In these diseases, a molecule called “tau” forms clumping rather than a scaffolding of the cytoskeleton as it normally does. The affected neurons tend to degenerate and even perish. Ordinarily, the prevention of such events undergoes by pathological molecules which are responsible for repairing and disposing by the organism. The protein PERK is part of such a maintenance system. However, in PSP, this mechanism appears to be defective. In previous studies, Höglinger and his colleagues had found that the risk for PSP is associated with variants at the PERK gene level, and that loss of PERK function induced tau pathology in humans.



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One of our first orders of priority is the treatment of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) with cutting edge Nootropics. PSP is uncommon brain disorder which affects movement, control of walking (gait) balance, speech, swallowing, vision, mood and behavior, and thinking. The disease results from damage to nerve cells in the brain. The disorder’s long name indicates that the disease worsens (progressive) and causes weakness (palsy) by damaging certain parts of the brain above nerve cell clusters called nuclei (supranuclear). These nuclei particularly control eye movements. One of the classic signs of the disease is an inability to aim and move the eyes properly, which individuals may experience as blurring of vision.



PSP walking to the bedroom

This is my father who is ravaged by Progressive Supranuclear Palsy – PSP. This is 1 of 2 videos which show how long it used to take him pre-treatment to walk from the Sofa in the living room to his bedroom. Please see part 2 for the other 16 mins. See more information on PSP and Nootropic


PSP is linked to over-production of a protein called tau in certain areas of the brain. In PSP, tau forms into clumps that are thought to damage nerve cells or nerve endings in the brain stem, basal ganglia and cerebral cortex areas. These areas control balance, thought processes, eye movements, speech and the ability to swallow.

Treatment of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is challenging at best. Only a few patients respond to dopaminergic or anticholinergic drugs, and responses often are short-lived and incomplete. No medication is effective in halting the progression of the disease; however, several medications, including dopamine agonists, tricyclic antidepressants, and methysergide, may provide mild to modest symptomatic improvement with respect to some of the clinical features.

I am personally currently seeking to find a natural and organic cure whether it be palliative or life changing. We have posting pictures and videos with the progress of a test subject who just happens to be my father. He was diagnosed with Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) 4 years ago after being misdiagnosed with Parkinson’s 2 years prior. He has lost his speech, movements, 80% of his swallowing ability, about 50 lbs of weight and his pride.
Thank you so muchBill for your brilliance, benevolence and kindness in striving towards eradicating PSP and so many other CNS related illnesses such as Alzheimers, Dementia, etc

Click here for additional information in regards to an alternative treatment for PSP Treatment which actually works!!

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a continuing neuropathy associated with supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, dysarthria, axial rigidity, frontal lobe dysfunction, and dementia (Ling, 2015). The common pathogenesis of the disease includes neuronal loss, gliosis and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT)-positive inclusions in neurons and glial cells, centrally in basal ganglia, brainstem, and cerebellum (Ling, 2015). The pathogenesis of PSP is not yet completely understood; however, there are several hypotheses. For instance, it is believed that PSP belongs to a group of mental disease called “tauopathies.” in such illnesses, the molecule called “tau” forms clumping rather than a scaffolding of the cytoskeleton as it normally does. The affected neurons tend to degenerate and even perish.


Ling, H. (2016). Clinical Approach to Progressive Supranuclear Palsy. Journal of Movement Disorders, 9(1), 3–13.


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The Role of Neuron Creation in Anxiety Disorders



According to Mike Membrino, anxiety and stress disorders are among the major prevalent of PTSD.

Separately, the clinical manifestations of these disorders provide a spectrum of alterations. To some extent, the present original trauma effects and when untreated, the disease can develop a significant impairment in functioning, reduced quality of life, and enormous economic burden. Recent studies have examined the underlying literature review on the neural mechanism when regulating impaired pattern present in anxiety.

According to the note submitted by Rene Hen, Ph.D., of Columbia’s Department of Psychiatry and the NY Psychiatric Institute, suggest that the production of the neuron or the in the brain have assisted in the treatment of anxiety that is associated with PTSD (Duval et al., 2015).
They further note that the thalamus is an implicated sensory integration. In effect, through activation, the thalamus is associated with high degree of anxiety and disgust in blood-injury-injection phobia, as well as automatic arousal in snake phobia. In the treatment with paroxetine reduces the activation of the thalamus, therefore, tend to reduce anxiety. Additionally, in the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus that is that separate is among the two areas of the brain where neurogenesis takes place. Among the possible improving patterns separation is the addition in the number of adult-generated neurons, so they are better able to process information. Besides, there is enough evidence that shows that reduced hippocampal can be achieved through functional neuroimaging.
Moreover, recent studies provide that in the current models of PTSD, hypoactivity in frontal regions suggests a reduced potential for top-down regulation of fear and fear extinction (Holzschneider & Mulert, 2011). The hippocampus provides information about the context of a situation, and the attenuated hippocampal response might be attributable to difficulties in identifying safe circumstances (Holzschneider & Mulert, 2011). Besides, the above mentioned functional modalities in the brain, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex, have shown possibilities in the patients with PTSD (Holzschneider & Mulert, 2011).
Therefore, the studies as mentioned earlier researchers emphasize on the using better use of technological advancement in imaging. Finally, research should be conducted on patient with impairments in pattern-separation tasks and decreased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.


Holzschneider, K., & Mulert, C. (2011). Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 13(4), 453–461.

Duval, E. R., Javanbakht, A., & Liberzon, I. (2015). Neural circuits in anxiety and stress disorders: a focused review. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 11, 115–126.


PTSD Treatment Modalities

PTSD Treatment Modalities
Treatments and Therapies
When it comes to the treatment and management of PTSD modalities, some research indicated that medications for psychotherapy are the primary methods that should be adopted, based on their argument of fact that every individual is different from one another and therefore, treatment should be suggested differently. Additionally, it is important for anyone with PTSD to be treated by a mental health provider who is experienced with PTSD as presented by Michael Membrino, President of Neuro-Endoceuticals. According to the Committee on the Assessment of Ongoing Effects in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; Institute of Medicine. Treatment for PTSD in Military and Veteran Populations (2007). The vast majority treatment of PTSD includes psychological therapies. This procedure includes exposure therapies, stress inoculation training, and cognitive therapies.
PTSD Treatment Modalities
One of the most pharmacotherapy used in the treatment of PTSD is the use of antidepressants. For example, the use of Tricyclicsand Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors is said to be more efficient in the sense that they assist ins restoring sleep and pain other antidepressants such as Nefazodone has been found to be of greater benefit in the study of US veterans. Most of the time, medications do not eliminate symptoms but provide symptom reduction and could be more efficient when used in conjunction with an ongoing program of trauma specific psychotherapy for patients, such as PE or CPT (14).Monotherapy trials of uncharacteristic antipsychotic therapy versus placebo have yielded mixed results. They include a small negative trial of olanzapine in veterans and two partially ongoing research of risperidone in women who had PTSD originating from childhood abuse. Quetiapine was found to be superior to placebo in a two-site is useful in the management trial of 80 veterans who had PTSD (Committee on the Assessment of Ongoing Effects in the Treatment of PTSD, 2007).


This is another method that can be used to treat PTSD. For example, the use of exposure therapies to reduce PTSD symptoms is associated with reducing problems such as anxiety, depression, fear that helps these patients to confronts their trauma-related issues like memories and feelings.
Exposure therapies interventions entail exposing to the image of repeated revisiting of the traumatic memory, which makes the feared situations compromised. Research shows that general family support and social awareness supports the recovery of the patient (Committee on the Assessment of PTSD, 2007).
Another method that is used to treat PTSD is cognitive therapies. According to Mike Membrino, this CT is a treatment procedure in which the systems assist the patient to ignore negative thoughts and help the understand the pathologic emotions and behaviors. In this case, cognitive therapies have been reported to be useful in the management of the PTSD.

How Talk Therapies Help People Overcome PTSD

This is another way that has been adopted by a clinician to assist in the treatment of PTSD. Talk therapies are essential in the sense that they empower the treatment of PTSD through various actions and knowledge that is achieved through civic education. Based on this general goal, different types of therapy may:

~ Education on trauma management therapy will assist the patient with PTSD to withdraw from expression of anger, and interpersonal difficulties. The therapy combines intensive individual exposure therapy, programmed practice, and structured social and emotional skills training groups.
~ Educate about trauma and it effect, symptoms and basically how it can be prevented.
~ Use skill such as relaxation and anger-control in order to seek attention of the patient.
~ Teach the patient how to manage their anger, deal with shameful situations and support trauma incident reduction.
~ Examine the reactions of the patient with specific medication and understand what procedures should be taken for medical follow ups.References:

Committee on the Assessment of Ongoing Effects in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; Institute of Medicine. Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran Populations: Initial Assessment. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2012 Jul 13. 7, Treatment. Available from:



Beyond Treatment: How can I help myself?
Up to the present times, most of the national hospital institution re currently engaging in clinical interventions that are associated with prevention and strategies on how to manage PTSD. Mike Membrino, President of Neuro-Endoceutials notes the contemporary medical and healthcare setting should participate in various research and clinical trials that would assist in the management of PTSD. In this case, there exists some procedure that every individual should focus on when it comes to the management of related mental disorder. Additionally, Mike Membrino further suggests that these clinical interventions are beyond treatment and they are significant even though they cannot be quickly adopted by a patient of the related disease. The central objective of how a person should assist themselves when it comes to the management of similar mental disorder is to seek medical doctor’s advice and prescription. On the other hand, Michael Membrino, President of Neuro-Endoceuticals, argues that patients are also guaranteed to check with the National clinical practice guidelines that would provide necessary procedure on the best course of action in dealing with post-traumatic stress disorders.Mike Membrino, also suggest that any patient with mental illness should be provided with emergency care in that every nursing or clinician should be able to provide temporary care and further instruction on how the patient can receive further help in the management of the disease before seeking the actual treatment. In this case, the Neuro-Endocueitcals Team suggest that an individual with PTSD should take the following course of action to help themselves.

· Participate in physical activities that would promote the functioning of the body
· Individuals should also primary and realistic goals
· Engage in whatever you can do at the moment. Push large tasks ahead.
· Take your time around and socially interact with other individual to get the overall experience.
· Always stay positive and send good thoughts to the universe, for example have the hope that your symptoms will improve momentarily.
· Seek comfort and family support to keep your moods precisely.

Consequently, in the modern health care setting, the value of caring for oneself is a significant aspect when it comes to a large number of individuals exposed to traumatic events. In this case, this article presents further information and understanding the research and clinical trials on PTSD.

Next Steps for PTSD Research

According to the analysis provided by Mike Membrino, President of Neuro-Endocueticals, PTSD is among the most common mental health disorders in the United States. In his manuscripts, Suri reviews that the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of the PTSD suggest that the disease has only screening, treatment, and directions in the PTSD research are the only options remaining. Separately, various recent studies showcase progress in the research on the mental and biological foundation of the PTSD, which had made most of the scholars and scientist to dwell on the clear understanding of the symptoms that are associated with trauma. This is because patients with trauma present a spectrum of reactions. Some of the recent research in understanding PTSD are presented below:
· Research conducted by Lancaster, Cynthia L. et al. (2016) suggest that exposure-based interventions are the most empirically supported treatment modalities of the PTSD.
· The NNIMH- have funded a team of researchers in the investigation of the trauma patients in acute care in order to acknowledge the changed that occurs in individuals whose symptoms improves naturally.
· Other recent studies studying the clinical implementation of the preventive interventions and how this provision of specialized treatment are adjusting the symptoms of the patient with trauma (Qi, Gevonden, & Shaley, 2016).
· Other researchers are being conducted to examine several factors that might indicate whether individual with PTSD care able to positively responds to various types of clinical interventions.
Qi, W., Gevonden, M., & Shalev, A. (2016). Prevention of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Trauma: Current Evidence and Future Directions. Current Psychiatry Reports, 18, 20. , C. L., Teeters, J. B., Gros, D. F., & Back, S. E. (2016). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview of Evidence-Based Assessment and Treatment. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5(11), 105.

Join a Study

What are Clinical Trials?
According to the explanation provided by Mike Membrino, Clinical Trials are research studies that are set in place to explore whether the medical strategy, treatment, or interventions can safely and efficiently solve the problem, in this case, Neurodegeneisis disorders. On the other hand, Umscheid, Margolis, & Grossman (2011) argue that clinical trials in their purest nature, are designed to observe outcomes of the human subjects under experimental conditions by the researchers or scientist. In this study, clinical trials will tend to focus on the effectiveness and safety of the interventions towards PTSD. Additionally, it is argued that a clinical trial is necessary for the sense that it permits the randomization of the intervention, thereby effectively removing the section bias that results from the imbalance of the unknown (Umscheid, Margolis, & Grossman (2011). Finally, for a trial to precisely address the primary objective, a sufficient sample size is required to have complete power in being able to detect a possible statistical difference.References:

Umscheid, C. A., Margolis, D. J., & Grossman, C. E. (2011). Key Concepts of Clinical Trials: A Narrative Review. Postgraduate Medicine, 123(5), 194–204.





PTSD is s psychiatric disorder that results from the experience or witnessing of traumatic or life-threatening events.

An event becomes traumatic when it is very life-threatening. The disease involves the exposure to trauma from single events that may cause death or serious injury. These events that my case PTSD include crimes, natural disasters, accidents, sexual violence, domestic violence, and other threats to the life. PTSD has complex psychobiological affects, which can damage a person’s daily life and be life threatening. In light of current events a sharp rise in patients with PTSD diagnosis is expected in the next decade (Iribarren et al. 2005).

Signs and Symptoms.

The most symptoms of PTSD are the re-experiencing symptoms. This includes the flashbacks in which the person acts or feels as if the events are re-happening, nightmares, repetitive and distressing intrusive images. In children, signs of hyper-arousal include hypervigilance of the threat, exaggerated startle responses, and difficulty in concentration and change in sleeping habits. Further symptoms of PTSD can lead to a considerable distress and can significantly interfere with social, educational and occupational functioning.

During diagnosis, adult must have presented the following signs one-month earlier:

  1. Re-occurrences of the past events
  2. Arousal symptoms
  3. Cognition and mood symptoms.


Iribarren, J., Prolo, P., Neagos, N., & Chiappelli, F. (2005). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence-Based Research for the Third Millennium. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2(4), 503–512.


ALCAR Neuroprotection and Pro-Neurogenic Effects


ALCAR is reported to be a naturally occurring substance that, when used or administered at supraphysiologic concentrations, is neuroprotective in various models of focal cerebral ischemia.


ALCAR Neuroprotection and Pro-Neurogenic Effects

On the other hand, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are the central factors that cause progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease.

The neural stem cells, on the other hand, underwriters in maintaining brain plasticity; hence, survival of neural stem cells and neuroblast in the process of the neurodegenerative process becomes significant in refilling the puddle of established neural population. And because ALCAR is present in almost all the body cells, it heightens endogenous antioxidants and regulates biogenetics.

In the contemporary medicine and healthcare setting, there is no evidence suggesting the putative mechanism and neuroprotective effects of ALCAR in 6-OHDA induced rat and mode of PD-like phenotypes. In this case, we examined the impact of ALCAR on death/survival of dopaminergic, neuroblast, and NSCs and the associated mechanism of the neuroprotection in 6-OHDA rat of PD-like phenotypes. In the diagnosis process, using ALCAR (100 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) treatment began three days earlier to 6-OHDA lessening and proceeded for another fourteen-day post-lessoning (Levy et al., 2009). From the lab result, it was discovered that the pre-treatment of ALCAR in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats increased the expression of the neurogenic and the pathway genes in the striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region.
Separately, exposure of the cultured neural cells to ALCAR inhibits apoptosis caused by the deprivation of serum. Besides, it was discovered that the pretreatment using ALCAR in 6-OHDA-lesioned reduced GSK-3β stimulation and amplified nuclear translocation of β-catenin. Purposeful deficits were reestablished subsequent ALCAR pretreatment in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats as established by the better-quality motor organization and revolving behavior, authorizing fortification of DAergic innervations in lesioned striatum (Singh et al., 2017). In conclusion, the overall result of the investigation suggests that ALCAR exercises exclusive neuroprotective effects through the stimulation of β-catenin pathway, telling its beneficial use to treat neurodegenerative sicknesses by improving reformative capability and subsequently neuroprotection.References
Levy, O. A., Malagelada, C., & Greene, L. A. (2009). Cell death pathways in Parkinson’s disease: proximal triggers, distal effectors, and final steps. Apoptosis : An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death, 14(4), 478–500.

Singh, S., Mishra, A., Mishra S, & Shukla, S. (2017). ALCAR promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis by regulating cell-survival and cell death-related signals in rat model of Parkinson’s disease like-phenotypes. 108:388-396. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint




Parkinson’s disease is said to be one of the most common neurodegenerative disorder.

The condition is associated with substantial burden sides, the affected and the family (Massano & Bhatia, 2012).


Various studies have been conducted yet the cause of the disease is still unknown. However, compound interactions between genetic and environmental factors are engaged. Regarding motor understand, PD is characterized by the clinical syndrome that is naturally called parkinsonism, which includes the cordial features (Massano & Bhatia, 2012).

On the other hand, the disease tends to damage the nerve cells in the brain that has the role in the production of the dopamine. Symptoms of the disease may include alterations in the speech, tremors, rigidity of the muscle. Additionally, no universal cure has been developed for the disease. However, some clinical interventions and strategies can be used to relieve the symptoms (Massano & Bhatia, 2012).

Therefore, Suitable efforts should be performed to achieve the accurate diagnosis, communicate a plausible prognosis to the patient and family, and proceed with the best therapeutic interventions (Massano & Bhatia, 2012). Remarkable progress has been made in the last two decades in the field of genetics, pathophysiology, and clinical imaging, but the diagnosis of PD still sits inevitably on clinical skills and exploration, which emphasizes the importance of a solid clinical knowledge about the disease (Massano & Bhatia, 2012)


Massano, J., & Bhatia, K. P. (2012). Clinical Approach to Parkinson’s Disease: Features, Diagnosis, and Principles of Management. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 2(6), a008870.





Acne Treatment
Past research has suggested that certain cannabinoids like CBD can reduce symptoms of acne. This discovery led researchers to investigate whether other non-psychoactive cannabinoids may be beneficial in treating acne disorders.

A 2016 study found that CBC was particularly useful as it reduced the production of sebum by sebaceous glands, which causes symptoms of acne. CBC was also found to reduce the effects of arachidonic acid, which plays a major role in acne production.
These effects, coupled with the ability of CBC to reduce inflammation, led the researchers to conclude that CBC may be “highly efficient” as an anti-acne treatment.

A 2012 study investigated the potential for CBC to manage bowel hypermotility, also known as diarrhea.
The researchers discovered that CBC reduced inflammation-induced hypermotility without causing hypo motility, or constipation.
This suggests that CBC may be a better treatment for diarrhea, since many current anti-diarrheal medications are known to cause constipation.

Bone Growth
CBC may also play a role in regulating bone growth. Scientists have found that low concentrations of cannabinoids can activate cells that are responsible for bone growth and repair, known as osteoclasts.
While CBC specifically has not yet been investigated by researchers in this function, other cannabinoids have demonstrated very promising potential in contributing to bone growth and repair through their activity on the CB2 receptor.
This notion can be expanded to include CBC since it activates the CB2 receptor indirectly and also increases levels of endocannabinoids, which act to enhance osteoclasts.

Cannabinoids have been found to display various anti-cancer properties in a number of studies. One of these properties involves the ability of cannabinoids to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, which is a programmed cell death response.
Another anti-cancer property of cannabinoids involves the ability of this class of chemicals to block cancer cells from proliferating. This means that the ability of cancer cells to divide in order to grow and expand can be inhibited by cannabinoids.
However, studies have not investigated the role of CBC specifically in producing anti-cancer effects.
But CBC’s indirect activity on the CB2 receptor, as well as its ability to influence the activity of endocannabinoids such as 2-AG and anandamide, suggest that CBC may contribute to the anti-cancer properties of Hemp Extract.

One of the earliest studies involving cannabichromene was published in 1981 by researchers at the University of Mississippi.
In the study, researchers found that CBC exhibited “strong” antibacterial effects on a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli and staph (S. aureus).
CBC showed “mild to moderate” activity against different types of fungi too, including a common food contaminant known as black mold.
Recent animal studies show CBC can reduce edema (swelling) as well as inflammation of the intestinal tract.
Interestingly, CBC appears to fight inflammation without activating cannabinoid receptors. This could explain why CBC produces a stronger anti-inflammatory effect when combined with other cannabinoids like THC.

Pain Relief
Cannabichromene has also been found to reduce pain in animal models, although its effect may not be as strong as THC.
However, a 2010 study concluded that CBC and CBD could both fight pain by “interacting with several targets involved in the control of pain” at the spinal level.
Since CBC and CBD are both non-psychoactive, scientists are hopeful that these Hemp Extract compounds can be used to treat pain without causing a high.

a 2010 study from the University of Mississippi identified a significant antidepressant effect of CBC in rat models.
The researchers concluded that CBC along with other cannabinoids including THC, CBD, CBN and CBG may “contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of hemp.”

Recent studies on CBC have led to the discovery of a very unique benefit — it may actually help promote the growth of new brain cells. Specifically, CBC appeared to increase the viability of developing brain cells, a process known as neurogenesis.
Contrary to popular belief, the brain doesn’t stop growing once you reach a certain age. However, neurogenesis in adults only occurs in a specific part of the brain called the hippocampus.
While CBC’s ability to promote neurogenesis is a very recent finding, previous studies have suggested that CBD might do the same.
As Dr. Xia Jiang of the University of Saskatchewan — one of the first scientists to uncover this remarkable effect — explained in an interview with Science Daily:
“Most ‘drugs of abuse’ suppress neurogenesis. Only hemp extract promotes neurogenesis.”
Opiates, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine are all known to inhibit brain growth. Yet CBC and other chemicals in hemp extract appear to have the opposite effect.




CBC is a unique chemical in CBD hemp extract that offers many health benefits.

While most people are familiar with CBD, there are many chemicals in CBD hemp extract that contribute to its diverse effects on the human body.

These effects include protecting neurons from damage, pain relief, suppressing nausea and vomiting, and many more.
Cannabichromene – CBC is an important chemical in CBD hemp extract that demonstrates the complexity of how the hemp plant works.