Nov 12, 2017

Jump-starting Your Endocannabinoid System

Categories:
Jump-starting Your Endocannabinoid System
Jump-starting Your Endocannabinoid System

As the previous section demonstrates, the endocannabinoid system is involved in practically every major disease.

In most cases, a deficiency of endocannabinoid activity contributes to disease, but excess activity can also be pathological.

The aim of enhancing your ECS does not necessarily entail upregulating cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids throughout your whole body, although it may. Healthy practices that support your ECS will help it regulate itself, including increasing or decreasing receptors and endocannabinoids where necessary.
Ultimately,

ECS empowerment can help anyone return to true homeostasis.
The practices discussed below are non-hemp methods of ECS enhancement. The use of phytocannabinoids as a tool for enhancement is examined after these methods. Hemp derived CBD is certainly one of the most powerful ways to support the ECS. However, direct ingestion of CBD, especially long-term consumption of CBD with high levels of endocannibinoids, seems to be one of the few ways that ECS function can be disregulated through overstimulation. As described earlier, CBD and particularly excessive CB1activation contribute to pathology in certain cases. It is very challenging and perhaps even naturally impossible to overstimulate your ECS through non-phytocannabinoid techniques.
Jump-starting Your Endocannabinoid System
Despite the potential for harm, the actual and comparative risk of CBD consumption is extremely low, and long-term ingestion of extracts with a balanced phytocannabinoid profile is safe for most people.
Strengthening the ECS through other means would likely reduce the amount of
phytocannabinoid supplementation necessary for many patients.

BACK TO NATURAL HEMP EXTRACTS HOME

LIVER DISEASE

Categories:
LIVER DISEASE
LIVER DISEASE

Liver disease is associated with various chronic aftermaths and can be damaged by several sources ranging from hepatitis C and excessive consumption of alcohol.

Liver cirrhosis is the most common type prolonged damage to the liver.

And the disease is characterized by the formation of fibrous scar tissue, which inhibits the ability of the liver to add and remove substances from the blood. Patient with advanced liver cirrhosis is reported to be associated with hypotension and endotoxemia, which indicates the involvement of the endocannabinoid.

According to the research conducted by Tam, Joseph et al. (2011) suggest that the high hypotensive action of the CBD has been assumed to be used in the further treatment of hypertension. This is the same effect that synthetic cannabinoid has when triggered under the cardiovascular system. Research suggests that cirrhosis in rats is characterized by progressive hypotension, which can be reversed by the CB1 blockage. Also, the presence of endocannabinoids in the liver at the concentration at similar to those in the brain stimulates the inhibition of the liver stellate cells which generate scars issues. On the other hand, CB2 receptors that are frequently undetected in the liver and permanently expressed in the cirrhotic human liver. In effect, the CBD derived from hemp suppresses the proliferation and regenerated apoptosis of human hepatic myofibroblast and stellate cells through CB2 receptors and; hence may become be anti-fibrotic and hepatoprotective (Tam, Joseph et al., 2011).

Separately, endocannabinoids are also reported to be involved in the diet-induced decrease in fatty-acid oxidation. In this case, the liver fat accumulation can be regulated hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. Finally, because ECS is present in the liver, it has been argued that is it has a various function in the therapeutic implications. Moreover, increased activity of CB1 receptors in the liver contributes to the hemodynamic abnormalities and promotes fibrosis in the liver cirrhosis. Additionally, non-psychoactive CB2 agonists may offer therapeutic benefit in attenuating liver injury and promoting tissue repair in the fibrotic liver (Alswat, 2013).

References:

Tam, J., Liu, J., Mukhopadhyay, B., Cinar, R., Godlewski, G., & Kunos, G. (2011). Endocannabinoids in Liver Disease. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 53(1), 346–355. http://doi.org/10.1002/hep.24077
Alswat, K. A. (2013). The Role of Endocannabinoids System in Fatty Liver Disease and Therapeutic Potentials. Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology : Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association, 19(4), 144–151. http://doi.org/10.4103/1319-3767.114505

BACK TO NATURAL HEMP EXTRACTS HOME

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Categories:
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Up to modern times, Mike Membrino, President of the Neuro-Endoceuticals, USA, notes that the inflammatory bowel disease is associated with several complications such as severe abdominal pain, malnutrition and other related consequences that often arises as a result of inflammatory.

The disease is also characterized by relapsing and reemitting sequences of inflammation primary involving the gastrointestinal tract.

Stintzing, Wissniowski, Lohwasser, Alinger, Neureiter, & Ocker (2011) argue that ECS is involved in many inflammatory disorders such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Indeed, the distribution and expression of the cannabinoids receptors when combined with inflammatory cytokines will assist in the regulation in most of the Crohn’s disease cases.
On the other hand, CB1 receptors are largely distributed across the gastrointestinal tract, together with endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-AG.

Besides, CB2 receptors are also present, including on macrophage white blood cells (that do not contain CB1 receptors). In this case, CB1 receptors have been found to be upregulated in the vascular endothelium and micro fibroblast that is located in the cirrhotic livers, while CB2 receptors have been identified in inflammatory cells, and they tend to regulate pathophysiology of the inflammatory bowel disease.

Additionally, it has been discovered that patients with severe and complex inflammatory bowel disease and represented in referral bias, shows that cannabis sativa can be used to relieve of diarrhea and that hemp extract may have a role in mediating inflammation (Ahmed, & Katz, 2016). In conclusion, endocannabinoids temporary on a CB2 result in weakening of inflammatory feedback. Also, cannabinoids have proinflammatory effects in which their immunomodulatory effect is based on the incidence of hemp extract plant consumption, the dose directed, the particular type of cannabinoid used, and the cells on which they are acting on.

References

Ahmed, W., & Katz, S. (2016). Therapeutic Use of Cannabis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 12(11), 668–679.

BACK TO NATURAL HEMP EXTRACTS HOME

EYE DISORDERS AND GLAUCOMA

Categories:
EYE DISORDERS AND GLAUCOMA

In the past centuries, hemp extract was used to treat various eye diseases.

Among them is Glaucoma that is characterized by abnormal high intraocular pressure (IOP) that can be advanced to blindness if not well diagnosed and treated.

This makes glaucoma an irreversible blinding eye disease that generates progressive retinal ganglion cells (Cairns, Baldridge, & Kelly, 2016). In their research, they suggest the endocannabinoid system has pulled in a considerable amount of attention as a possible way of treating glaucoma, commonly because of the observed IOP; hence the reducing effects seen after administration of the exogenous cannabinoids (Cairns, Baldridge, & Kelly, 2016).

In this case, the presence of the ECS including CB receptors, endocannabinoids like anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) in the anterior, posterior lobe of the eye and retina signals the CBS receptors. In effect, cannabinoids in the eye will reduce tear production, and regulate the IOP by decreasing it (Cairns, Baldridge, & Kelly, 2016).
Separately, the presence of the CB1 receptors that are expressed in the primary cells of the neural retina. In this case, the hypotensive effect of the cannabinoid on IOP is primarily affected by the presence of CB1 receptor. On the other hand, following the distribution of the endocannabinoids in the retina and considering the functions of the cannabinoids in modulating IOP in neuropsychology, it is quite clear to suggest that cannabis can be used in treating glaucoma.

Additionally, according to the research conducted by Cairns, Baldridge, & Kelly (2016), Δ9-THC and WIN 55,212-2 activate CB1 and CB1, CB1 can lower the IOP attenuated in βAR knockout mice. This can be concluded that CB1 can stamp down the release of the norepinephrine that reduces the IOP. However, CB2 has little effect in regulating and controlling glaucoma in the sense that they are much sparser in activating IOP.Looking at the long-term treatment of glaucoma, Cairns, Baldridge, & Kelly (2016) argue that cannabinoids can be used in treating glaucoma and that in chronic, topical application 0.5 percent WIN 55,212-2, was identified in the study to be effective in reducing IOP within few weeks. Conversely, it is evident that CB1has positive characteristics to allosteric modulators that have the capacity of stimulating endocannabinoid-mediated CB1 showing that they lack behavioral side effects and suggest possible use in future treatment of glaucoma.

Other than glaucoma, Mike Membrino and his team have indicated that ECS has been used to regulate other eye disorders. For instance, Cannabinoids are argued to guard against retinal neurotoxicity and have powerful anti-inflammatory agents that protect against degenerative eye diseases. Additionally, CB1 receptor agonist stimulates monoamine oxidase on the bovine retina that stamps down the dopamine release. Phytocannabinoids like THC and CBD have shown the potential to reduce the IOP and protect the retinal blood barrier in diabetic, correspondingly. In conclusion, heightening evidence now suggest that the modulation and correlation of ECS may show potential for management and diagnosis of eye diseases and glaucoma.

References
Cairns, E. A., Baldridge, W. H., & Kelly, M. E. M. (2016). The Endocannabinoid System as a Therapeutic Target in Glaucoma. Neural Plasticity, 2016, 9364091. http://doi.org/10.1155/2016/9364091

BACK TO NATURAL HEMP EXTRACTS HOME

Does the ECS regulate Cancer

Categories:
Does the ECS regulate Cancer
Does the ECS regulate Cancer
Cancer is one kind of disease which abnormal cells can divide without regulation and invade nearby tissues. In cases of multicellular organisms, individual cells are born and generated with the internal machinery to have experience of or undergo programmed cell death, which is referred to as apoptosis. In effect, when these cells become damaged, the cell will kill themselves for the organism to benefit. However, in cases of cancer, the cancerous cell has not the capacity to self-induce apoptosis.
In this case, they continue to regenerate and re produce that can also spread to all other parts of the body organism. Khan, Mohammed I. et al. (2016) argue that ECS can control and regulate cancer.To start with, Michael Membrino of Neuro-Endocueticals, respectively maintains that Hemp Extract is the active component of cannabinoids. Similarly, they exist in the family of compounds that belong to different classes that can act on cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Furthermore, Khan, Mohammed I. et al. (2016) notes that cannabinoids are grouped into three classes, including synthetic cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and phytocannabinoids. One way through which ECS regulate cancer is the fact that cancer is known characterized by uncontrolled cell division and cell death that originates from cumulative damage of significant regulatory genes (Guindon, & Hohmann, 2011).
In this case, the antiproliferative properties of hemp compounds (Δ9-THC) are used to inhibit lung adenocarcinoma cell growth. On the other hand, cannabinoids are known to induce synthesis of ceramides, which is comprised of fatty acids and sphingosine that are found in the cell membrane. The ceramides will lead to the activation of CB1 or CB2 receptor through the process of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In effect, the extracellular regulated kinase will promote apoptosis in the cancerous cell; therefore, regulating cancer (Guindon, & Hohmann, 2011). Additionally, the activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors stamps down adenylyl cyclase and reduce both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) capacity and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. This action alone reduces the regulation of gene transcription leading to apoptosis.
Does the ECS regulate Cancer
Separately, it is argued that the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) are upregulated in breast and prostate cancer. For instance, when the raised cannabinoids are combined with pro-apoptotic and antiproliferative capacities of the endocannabinoids, the chances of regulating cancer in high. In this case, when healthy cells are programmed in a manner to have the high capacity of developing more cannabinoid receptors when these cells become cancerous, they would be made more susceptible to the anti-cancer effects of the endocannabinoids.
Consequently, according to research conducted by Guindon, & Hohmann (2011) breast cancer is the malignant breast neoplasm. And when cannabinoids such as CB1 are expressed in the cells of the breast cancer will tend to show the anatomical distribution that is appropriate to regulate breast cancer proliferation. Moreover, in vitro research, it is noted that endocannabinoids and compound of cannabinoids are used to control the proliferation or migration, or apoptosis in various breast cancer situations.

The phytocannabinoids CBR is described as the class component of cannabinoids that usually stamps down cell proliferation, thereby increasing apoptosis and reduces migration in various lines of cancer cells. Separately, in vitro, research suggests that cannabinoids minimize tumor growth and metastasis together with cell development and angiogenesis in mice induced with various cancer cells (Guindon, & Hohmann, 2011).
For instance, Guindon, & Hohmann further explains that Δ9-THC have the ability to reduce the size of the tumor as well as lessen the number of tumor and lung metastases and stamps down both cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Suggestively, the vast majority of the research has agreed that phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids have anti-cancer activity predominantly.

Does the ECS regulate Cancer

Separately, the research conducted by Guindon, & Hohmann (2011) indicates that the expression of the cannabinoid receptors (CB1) in different prostate cancer is associated with high immunoreactivity score.

Similarly, it was evident that CB1 expression is up-regulated in prostate cancer tissue. Conversely, CB2 receptors have also greater impact when expressed in different prostate cancer cell lines through the use of RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and Western blot.

In 2011, studies suggested that CB receptor expression in cancer cell will depend on the type of cancer. For example, an examination astrocytomas demonstrate that almost 70 percent of tumor expresses both CB1 or CB2 and the capacity to which CB2 expression correlated with the tumor malignancy (Hermanson, & Marnett, 2011). Besides, the activation of both CB receptors has shown to stimulate de novo synthesis of ceramide in human tumors comprising leukemia, pancreatic, glioma, and DLD-1 and HT29 colorectal cancer cells. Consequently, it has been indicated that hemp smokers have the ability to extract intake to the abolishment of the leukemia cancer cell in human patients.
On the other hand, looking at the lung cancer Cannabinoids tends to halt down the development of tumor without side effects (Chakravarti, Ravi, & Ganju, 2014). Also. Studies have indicated that for a patient with lung cancer, the participation of COX-2 and PPAR-γ in cannabinoids cause pro-apoptotic and tumor-regressive action. Additionally, the activation of CB1 or CB2 receptors expresses the apoptotic death of the tumorigenic epidermal cells thereby regulating skin cancer.

Looking at borne disease, Chakravarti, Ravi, & Ganju (2014) note that the skeletal endocannabinoid system plays a significant role in regulating bone cancer. In their explanation, they argue that the expressions of the levels of CB1 and CB2 receptors can attenuate pain and hyperalgesia in a metastatic bone patient.

Consequently, the CB1 receptor agonist arachidonoyl-2-chloroethylamine can generate antinociceptive properties when the intrathecal administration in this model is administered, which enhances the limb flinches and weight bearing.

In conclusion, Mike Membrino, President of Neuro-Endoneuticals presents that the available literature indicates that ECS is the target to suppress the evolution and progression of different types of cancer in the future disease management. Even though, this review focus on many types of cancer, endocannabinoids express various interesting effects that are dependent the tumor cells. Both synthetic cannabinoids and endocannabinoids systems are implicated in the stamping down cancer cell proliferation, and angiogenesis, which tends to reduce tumor development and growth and metastases and to induce apoptosis.

References

Chakravarti, B., Ravi, J., & Ganju, R. K. (2014). Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents in cancer: current status and future implications. Oncotarget, 5(15), 5852–5872.
Guindon, J., & Hohmann, A. G. (2011). The endocannabinoid system and cancer: therapeutic implications. British Journal of Pharmacology, 163(7), 1447–1463. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01327.x
Khan, M. I., Sobocińska, A. A., Czarnecka, A. M., Król, M., Botta, B., & Szczylik, C. (2016). The Therapeutic Aspects of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) for Cancer and their Development: From Nature to Laboratory. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 22(12), 1756–1766. http://doi.org/10.2174/1381612822666151211094901
Hermanson, D. J., & Marnett, L. J. (2011). Cannabinoids, Endocannabinoids and Cancer. Cancer Metastasis Reviews, 30(3-4), 599–612. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10555-011-9318-8

BACK TO NATURAL HEMP EXTRACTS HOME

Rheumatoid Arthritis & The Endocannabinoid System

Categories:
Rheumatoid Arthritis & The Endocannabinoid System
Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease that occurs as a result of the increasing pain from the chronic autoimmune inflammation. Following the research carried out by Mike Membrino and his team, the inflammation, slowly damages the joints, leading to 12 continuously impaired function and increase pain. Additionally, the primary clinical implication of this disease is a complex acute pain that includes both nociceptive and neuropathic mechanisms. Various research from preclinical studies supports the interest of the endocannabinoid system as an emerging therapeutic target for osteoarthritis pain (La Porta, Bura Negrete, & Maldonado, 2014).
Indeed, pharmacological studies have shown the antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids in different rodent models of rheumatoid arthritis, and compelling evidence suggests an active participation of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of this disease (La Porta, Bura, Negrete, & Maldonado, R2014).
Other studies have shown the CB1 receptors reduces the inflammatory markers like tumor necrosis factor-alpha and stops the development of collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Anandamide and hemp derived CBD oil are effective against arthritis-related pain. This evidence suggests RA progression may be connected to an endocannabinoid deficiency, and that using CB1/CB2 agonists could provide significant benefit. However, little clinical evidence has been presented to back this therapeutic use of cannabinoids, despite the promising recent studies. In this case, future research should be conducted to identify the role played by ECS in any disease.

References:

La Porta C, Bura A, Negrete R, & Maldonado R. (2014). Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in osteoarthritis pain. European journal of Neuroscience, 39(3):485-500. doi: 10.1111/ejn.12468.

BACK TO NATURAL HEMP EXTRACTS HOME

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis & The Endocannabinoid System

Categories:

 

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis & The Endocannabinoid System

 

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis – ALS a fatal motor neuron disorder, which is characterized by progressive loss of the upper and lower neurons at the spinal or bulbar level (Zerei, S. et al., 2015).

Various studies have shown that ECS can be beneficial in regulating ALS as it reduces the excitotoxic and oxidative damage.

Bilsland and Greensmith (2008) note that cannabinoids exert anti-glutamatergic and anti-inflammatory actions through activation of the CB receptors. The stimulation of the CB1 may, therefore, inhibit glutamate release from presynaptic nerve terminals and reduce the postsynaptic calcium influx in response to the glutamate stimulation. Finally, cannabinoids agents may also exert anti-oxidant actions by a receptor-independent mechanism. In this case, the capacity for the cannabinoids to target multiple neurotoxic pathways in various cell populations may increase their possible treatment of ALS.

 

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis & The Endocannabinoid System

References
Zarei, S., Carr, K., Reiley, L., Diaz, K., Guerra, O., Altamirano, P. F. Chinea, A. (2015). A comprehensive review of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Surgical Neurology International, 6, 171. http://doi.org/10.4103/2152-7806.169561
Bilsland, L. & Greensmith, L. (2008).The ECS in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. National Library Medicine, 14(23); 2306-16.

BACK TO NATURAL HEMP EXTRACTS HOME

Ischemia Impact on the Endocannabinoid System

Categories:
ISCHEMIA IMPACT ON THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM
ISCHEMIA IMPACT ON THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM

Recent studies show that endocannabinoids play a significant role when it comes the regulating of the cardiovascular function in varied conditions.

According to the research conducted by the Neuro-Endoceuticals team, USA, they posit that ECS are endogenous lipid mediators that have a broad range of biological effects that are the same to those of the hemp extract plant.

In this case, Mike Membrino, President of Neuro-Endoceuticals asserts that ECSs are involved in various psychological functions, which include the regulation of appetite by the central mechanism and its impacts of obesity (Cunha, Pedro et., 2011).

Additionally, it is also reported that ECS has a direct influence on the vasculature and the heart muscle function. Pacher & Steffens (2009) note that the most common studied endocannabinoids include arachidonoyl ethanolamine and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol.
Consequently, they further posit that ECS exert their biological influence through the primary G-protein cannabinoid receptors. This makes the ECS have the variety of cardiovascular effect both in vivo and in vitro (Cunha, Pedro et., 2011).
Separately, through the synthetic antagonist of CB1 receptors, it is argued that endocannabinoids system plays a significant role in modulation of the food ingestion and energetic balance.
ISCHEMIA IMPACT ON THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM

MRI image of brain showing area of Alzheimer patient.

On the other hand, in vitro, CB1 acts between the cardiovascular process, including vasodilation that exists in the afferent arterioles of the kidney by the endothelial release of nitric oxide (Cunha, Pedro et., 2011). Additionally, another impact of the ECS is the interest of CB1 receptors that have a high correlation between the concentrations of various cannabinoid agonist that tend to generate hypotensive and bradycardic responses in the brain. In effect, the hypotensive effect of cannabinoid can lead to the acute effect of blood pressure because of the alterations in either peripheral vascular resistance, cardiac output, or both (Cunha, Pedro et., 2011). Finally, the function of cannabinoids in activating vascular and cardiac CB1 receptors has shown the link to numerous forms of circulatory shock and advanced liver cirrhosis. In this case, depending on a particular condition, ECS has varied effects.References

Pacher P, & Steffens, S. (2009). The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular disease. Seminars in Immunopathology, 31(1), 63–77. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00281-009-0145-8
Cunha, P., Romão, A. M., Mascarenhas-Melo, F., Teixeira, H. M., & Reis, F. (2011). Endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular disorders – new pharmacotherapeutic opportunities. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, 3(3), 350–360. http://doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.84435

BACK TO NATURAL HEMP EXTRACTS HOME

Hypertension & The Endocannabinoid System

Categories:

Hypertension & The Endocannabinoid System

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is one of the most dangerous cardiovascular disorder that is associated with the damage of the arteries, heart, brain, eyes, and other sensitive body parts as asserted by Mike Membrino.

The disease tends to occur when the force of the blood pumping through your arteries is abnormal and too loud. In clinical interventions, hypertension is a challenging condition to manage because the patients are asymptomatic and treatment is preventative rather than palliative.

If the disease is untreated, hypertension has adverse aftermaths, including renal disease, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular accident. However, recent research shows that patient receives sufficiently aggressive management with the help of endocannabinoid system.

For example, Michael Membrino argues that the anandamide and CBD hemp extracts are used to lower the blood pressure by triggering the CB1 receptors. In effect, the hypotensive effect is greater in high blood pressure individuals that those with normal blood pressure. This can only suggest that cannabinoids exert stronger effects when a metric is too far from homeostasis. In 1970, the first attempt to use cannabinoids ligands as antihypertensive agents were contemplated and described to provide a long-lasting disease decrease in blood pressure connected with the chronic use of cannabis in human and in response to acute, chronic administration of tetrahydrocannabinol (Cunha et al., 2011).). On the other hand, experiment using rats and mice with regular blood pressure, B1 agonism and antagonism had a little change (Cunha et al., 2011). However, for the hypertensive rats and mice, there was an increase in high blood pressure, suggesting that CB1 receptors only works when blood pressure become deregulated (Cunha et al., 2011).
In the research presented by Mike Membrino President of Neuro-Endoceuticals and a specialist in the field of Adult Neurogenesis, the possible use of cannabinoids as an antihypertensive effect has emerged in demonstrating greater hypotensive efficacy in hypertensive compared to normotensive animals. Besides, the team presented that ECS play a significant role in reducing high blood pressure through the activation of CB1 receptors. In this case, they become upregulated in hypertensive rats, which increases the cardiovascular effects of anandamide.
Hypertension & The Endocannabinoid System
Some of the adverse conditions that may associate with high blood pressure include stroke and heart attacks that occur when there is the restricted flow of blood to the heart, brain, and other parts of the body making the cells not able to absorb enough nutrients for survival. In such cases, ECS tend to regulate ischemia through the effects of CBD that heightens anandamide. The stimulation of anandamide will signals and activate various receptors. Research conducted in 2010 showed that the administered mice with CBD before the induction of coronary ischemia resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in tissue death before reperfusion. The condition was also associated with increased irregular heartbeats.
A Recent study conducted by Pacher, Batkai, and Kunos (2015) indicated that CBD Vape with hemp extracts were found to result in greater and longer lasting decrease of arterial blood pressure in hypertensive individuals as compared to normotensive individuals. Further studies demonstrated that relative modest hypotensive effect of anandamide was present in anesthetized but in no conscious normotensive rats. This shows that CBD effects are associated with high regulation of hypertension. Separately, CBD has indicated to reduce many types of inflammatory and fibrosis biochemical markers as well as oxidative and nitrative stress. Moreover, CBD tend to control and guard human heart cells against the increased free radical damage induced by high glucose exposure.
Hypertension & The Endocannabinoid System
References
Pacher, P., Bátkai, S., & Kunos, G. (20125). Blood pressure regulation by endocannabinoids and their receptors. Neuropharmacology, 48(8), 1130–1138.
Cunha, P., Romão, A. M., Mascarenhas-Melo, F., Teixeira, H. M., & Reis, F. (2011). Endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular disorders – new pharmacotherapeutic opportunities. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, 3(3), 350–360. http://doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.84435
Mendizábal, V. E., & Adler-Graschinsky, E. (2007). Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents in cardiovascular disease: a tale of passions and illusions. British Journal of Pharmacology, 151(4), 427–440. http://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0707261

BACK TO NATURAL HEMP EXTRACTS HOME

CB1 & CB2 LOCATIONS

Categories:
CB1 & CB2 LOCATIONS
Up to the present times, the endocannabinoid systems are known to have broad effects on a variety of tissues. It has also indicated to profoundly influence cardiovascular and immune systems as well as controlling progenitor cell proliferations (1-3). Mike Membrino, maintains that cannabinoids receptors (CB1 & CB2) have arose as a dominant player in the multifaceted web of neuromodulators, establishing a new intercellular communiqué network mostly convoluted in the controller of neurotransmitter announcement.
Additionally, Michael Membrino, President of Neuro-Endoceuticals asserts that there are two major interactive systems within the ECS, including cannabinoids receptors that are found on the cell surfaces and endocannabinoids that fit the receptors that trigger numerous metabolic processes. CB1 receptors are present in the very high levels in several brain regions and lower quantities in additional extensive fashion. These receptors arbitrate numerous of the psychoactive belongings of cannabinoids.
CB1 & CB2 LOCATIONS
On the other hand, CB2 has a more restricted distribution, being located and found in some immune cells and a few neurons. This receptor is believed to serve a significant role in immune function and inflammation. Both CB1 and CB2 couple central to inhibitory G-protein and are subjected to the same pharmacological influence as other G-protein coupled receptors. The primary explanation is that the differential binding of CB1 and CB2 receptors either can lead to various physiological effects mediated through neurotransmitters.

BACK TO NATURAL HEMP EXTRACTS HOME